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This article is about the preparation of food. For a general outline, see
food preparation
. For varied styles of international food, see
cuisine




Cooking in a restaurant in
Morocco


Cooking

or

cookery

is the

art

,

technology

,

science

and

craft

of preparing

food

for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the

world

, from grilling food over an open fire to using

electric stoves

, to baking in various types of

ovens

, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends. The ways or types of cooking also depend on the skill and type of training an individual cook has. Cooking is done both by people in their own dwellings and by professional cooks and chefs in restaurants and other food establishments. Cooking can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat, such as in

ceviche

, a traditional

South American

dish where

fish

is cooked with the acids in

lemon

or lime juice.


Preparing food with heat or fire

is an activity unique to humans. It may have started around 2 million years ago, though archaeological evidence for it reaches no more than 1 million years ago.

The expansion of agriculture, commerce, trade and transportation between civilizations in different regions offered cooks many new ingredients. New inventions and technologies, such as the invention of

pottery

for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques. Some modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation to further enhance the flavor of the dish served.


[1]

History

[


edit

]






Homo erectus


may have begun cooking food as early as 500,000 years ago.

may have begun cooking food as early as 500,000 years ago.


Phylogenetic analysis

suggests that human ancestors may have invented cooking as far back as 1.8 million to 2.3 million years ago.


[2]

Re-analysis of burnt bone fragments and plant ashes from the

Wonderwerk Cave

, South Africa, has provided evidence supporting

control of fire by early humans

there by 1 million years ago.


[3]

There is evidence that


Homo erectus


was cooking their food as early as 500,000 years ago.


[4]

Evidence for the controlled use of fire by

Homo erectus

beginning some 400,000 years ago has wide scholarly support.


[5]


[6]

Archaeological evidence from 300,000 years ago,


[7]

in the form of ancient hearths,

earth ovens

, burnt animal bones, and

flint

, are found across Europe and the Middle East.

Anthropologists

think that widespread cooking fires began about 250,000 years ago, when

hearths

started appearing.


[8]

Recently, the earliest hearths have been reported to be at least 790,000 years old.


[9]

Communication between the Old World and the New World in the

Columbian Exchange

influenced the history of cooking. The movement of foods across the Atlantic, from the New World, such as

potatoes

,

tomatoes

,

maize

,

yams

,

beans

,

bell pepper

,

chili pepper

,

vanilla

,

pumpkin

,

cassava

,

avocado

,

peanut

,

pecan

,

cashew

,

pineapple

,

blueberry

,

sunflower

,

chocolate

,

gourds

, and

squash

, had a profound effect on Old World cooking. The movement of foods across the Atlantic, from the Old World, such as

cattle

,

sheep

,

pigs

,

wheat

,

oats

,

barley

,

rice

,

apples

,

pears

,

peas

,

chickpeas

,

green beans

,

mustard

, and

carrots

, similarly changed New World cooking.


[10]

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, food was a classic marker of identity in Europe. In the nineteenth-century “Age of

Nationalism

” cuisine became a defining symbol of national identity.

The

Industrial Revolution

brought mass-production, mass-marketing and standardization of food. Factories processed, preserved, canned, and packaged a wide variety of foods, and processed cereals quickly became a defining feature of the American breakfast.


[11]

In the 1920s,

freezing methods

,

cafeterias

and

fast food restaurants

emerged.

Along with changes in food, starting early in the 20th century, governments have issued nutrition guidelines, leading to the

food pyramid


[12]

(introduced in Sweden in 1974). The 1916 “Food For Young Children” became the first USDA guide to give specific dietary guidelines. Updated in the 1920s, these guides gave shopping suggestions for different-sized families along with a Depression Era revision which included four cost levels. In 1943, the USDA created the “Basic Seven” chart to make sure that people got the recommended nutrients. It included the first-ever Recommended Daily Allowances from the National Academy of Sciences. In 1956, the “Essentials of an Adequate Diet” brought recommendations which cut the number of groups that American school children would learn about down to four. In 1979, a guide called “Food” addressed the link between too much of certain foods and chronic diseases, but added “fats, oils, and sweets” to the four basic food groups.

Ingredients

[


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]

Most ingredients in cooking are derived from

living organisms

. Vegetables, fruits, grains and nuts as well as herbs and spices come from plants, while meat, eggs, and dairy products come from animals. Mushrooms and the yeast used in baking are kinds of

fungi

. Cooks also use

water

and

minerals

such as

salt

. Cooks can also use

wine

or

spirits

.

Naturally occurring ingredients contain various amounts of molecules called


proteins


,


carbohydrates


and


fats


. They also contain water and minerals. Cooking involves a manipulation of the chemical properties of these molecules.

Carbohydrates

[


edit

]

Carbohydrates include the common sugar,

sucrose

(table sugar), a

disaccharide

, and such simple sugars as

glucose

(made by enzymatic splitting of sucrose) and

fructose

(from fruit), and

starches

from sources such as cereal flour, rice,

arrowroot

and potato.

The interaction of heat and carbohydrate is complex.

Long-chain sugars

such as

starch

tend to break down into

simpler sugars

when cooked, while simple sugars can form

syrups

. If sugars are heated so that all water of

crystallisation

is driven off, then

caramelization

starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal decomposition with the formation of

carbon

, and other breakdown products producing

caramel

. Similarly, the heating of sugars and proteins elicits the

Maillard reaction

, a basic flavor-enhancing technique.

An

emulsion

of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to the dish being cooked. In

European

cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a

roux

is used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces. In Asian cooking, a similar effect is obtained from a mixture of rice or

corn starch

and water. These techniques rely on the properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous

saccharides

during cooking, which causes the familiar thickening of

sauces

. This thickening will break down, however, under additional heat.

Fats

[


edit

]

Types of fat include

vegetable oils

, animal products such as butter and

lard

, as well as fats from grains, including

corn

and

flax

oils. Fats are used in a number of ways in cooking and baking. To prepare

stir fries

,

grilled cheese

or

pancakes

, the pan or griddle is often coated with fat or oil. Fats are also used as an ingredient in baked goods such as cookies, cakes and pies. Fats can reach temperatures higher than the boiling point of water, and are often used to conduct high heat to other ingredients, such as in frying, deep frying or sautéing. Fats are used to add flavor to food (e.g., butter or bacon fat), prevent food from sticking to pans and create a desirable texture.

Proteins

[


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]

Edible animal material, including

muscle

,

offal

, milk,

eggs

and

egg whites

, contains substantial amounts of protein. Almost all vegetable matter (in particular

legumes

and

seeds

) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts. Mushrooms have high protein content. Any of these may be sources of

essential amino acids

. When

proteins

are heated they become denatured (unfolded) and change texture. In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer or more

friable

– meat becomes

cooked

and is more friable and less flexible. In some cases, proteins can form more rigid structures, such as the coagulation of

albumen

in egg whites. The formation of a relatively rigid but flexible matrix from egg white provides an important component in baking cakes, and also underpins many desserts based on

meringue

.




Water is often used to cook foods such as
noodles

Water

[


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]

Cooking often involves water, frequently present in other liquids, which is both added in order to immerse the substances being cooked (typically water,

stock

or wine), and released from the foods themselves. A favorite method of adding flavor to dishes is to save the liquid for use in other recipes. Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of the cooking method used is often based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as in

steaming

,

simmering

,

boiling

,

braising

, and

blanching

. Heating liquid in an open container results in rapidly increased

evaporation

, which

concentrates

the remaining

flavor

and ingredients – this is a critical component of both

stewing

and sauce making.

Vitamins and minerals

[


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]



Vegetables contain important vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and minerals are required for normal

metabolism

but which the body cannot manufacture itself and which must therefore come from external sources. Vitamins come from several sources including fresh fruit and vegetables (

Vitamin C

), carrots,

liver

(

Vitamin A

), cereal bran, bread, liver (B vitamins), fish liver oil (

Vitamin D

) and fresh green vegetables (

Vitamin K

). Many minerals are also essential in small quantities including iron,

calcium

,

magnesium

,

sodium chloride

and

sulfur

; and in very small quantities copper,

zinc

and

selenium

. The micronutrients, minerals, and vitamins


[13]

in fruit and vegetables may be destroyed or eluted by cooking. Vitamin C is especially prone to oxidation during cooking and may be completely destroyed by protracted cooking.


[14]

[

not in citation given



]

The bioavailability of some vitamins such as

thiamin

,

vitamin B6

,

niacin

,

folate

, and

carotenoids

are increased with cooking by being freed from the food microstructure.


[15]

Blanching or steaming vegetables is a way of minimizing vitamin and mineral loss in cooking.

Methods

[


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]

There are very many methods of cooking, most of which have been known since antiquity. These include baking, roasting, frying, grilling, barbecuing, smoking, boiling, steaming and braising. A more recent innovation is microwaving. Various methods use differing levels of heat and moisture and vary in cooking time. The method chosen greatly affects the end result because some foods are more appropriate to some methods than others. Some major hot cooking techniques include:

Health and safety

[


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]

Food safety

[


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]

Cooking can prevent many

foodborne illnesses

that would otherwise occur if the food is eaten raw. When heat is used in the preparation of food, it can kill or inactivate harmful organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, as well as various parasites such as

tapeworms

and


Toxoplasma gondii


.

Food poisoning

and other illness from uncooked or poorly prepared food may be caused by bacteria such as

pathogenic strains

of


Escherichia coli


,


Salmonella typhimurium


and


Campylobacter


, viruses such as

noroviruses

, and

protozoa

such as


Entamoeba histolytica


. Bacteria, viruses and parasites may be introduced through salad, meat that is uncooked or done

rare

, and unboiled water.


[16]

The

sterilizing

effect of cooking depends on temperature, cooking time, and technique used. Some

food spoilage

bacteria such as


Clostridium botulinum


or


Bacillus cereus


can form spores that survive boiling, which then germinate and regrow after the food has cooled. This makes it unsafe to reheat cooked food more than once.


[17]

Cooking increases the digestibility of many foods which are inedible or poisonous when raw. For example, raw cereal grains are hard to digest, while

kidney beans

are toxic when raw or improperly cooked due to the presence of

phytohaemagglutinin

, which is inactivated by cooking for at least ten minutes at 100 °C (212 °F).


[18]

Food safety depends on the safe preparation, handling, and storage of food. Food spoilage bacteria proliferate in the ”

Danger zone

” temperature range from 40 to 140 °F (4 to 60 °C), food therefore should not be stored in this temperature range. Washing of hands and surfaces, especially when handling different meats, and keeping raw food separate from cooked food to avoid cross-contamination, are good practices in food preparation.


[19]

Foods prepared on plastic cutting boards may be less likely to harbor bacteria than wooden ones.


[20]


[21]

Washing and

disinfecting

cutting boards, especially after use with raw meat, poultry, or seafood, reduces the risk of contamination.


[21]

Effects on nutritional content of food

[


edit

]

Proponents of

raw foodism

argue that cooking food increases the risk of some of the detrimental effects on food or health. They point out that during cooking of vegetables and fruit containing

vitamin C

, the vitamin elutes into the cooking water and becomes degraded through oxidation. Peeling vegetables can also substantially reduce the vitamin C content, especially in the case of potatoes where most vitamin C is in the skin.


[22]

However, research has shown that in the specific case of

carotenoids

a greater proportion is absorbed from cooked vegetables than from raw vegetables.


[14]

German research in 2003 showed significant benefits in reducing breast cancer risk when large amounts of raw vegetable matter are included in the diet. The authors attribute some of this effect to heat-labile

phytonutrients

.


[23]


Sulforaphane

, a

glucosinolate

breakdown product, which may be found in vegetables such as

broccoli

, has been shown to be protective against

prostate cancer

, however, much of it is destroyed when the vegetable is boiled.


[24]


[25]

The

USDA

has studied retention data for 16 vitamins, 8 minerals, and alcohol for approximately 290 foods for various cooking methods.


[26]

Carcinogens

[


edit

]

In a human epidemiological analysis by

Richard Doll

and

Richard Peto

in 1981, diet was estimated to cause a large percentage of cancers.


[27]

Studies suggest that around 32% of cancer deaths may be avoidable by changes to the diet.


[28]

Some of these cancers may be caused by carcinogens in food generated during the cooking process, although it is often difficult to identify the specific components in diet that serve to increase cancer risk. Many foods, such as beef steak and broccoli, contain low concentrations of both

carcinogens

and

anticarcinogens

.


[29]

Several studies published since 1990 indicate that cooking meat at high temperature creates

heterocyclic amines

(HCAs), which are thought to increase cancer risk in humans. Researchers at the

National Cancer Institute

found that human subjects who ate beef rare or medium-rare had less than one third the risk of stomach cancer than those who ate beef medium-well or well-done.


[30]

While avoiding meat or eating meat raw may be the only ways to avoid HCAs in meat fully, the National Cancer Institute states that cooking meat below 212 °F (100 °C) creates “negligible amounts” of HCAs. Also,

microwaving

meat before cooking may reduce HCAs by 90% by reducing the time needed for the meat to be cooked at high heat.


[30]


Nitrosamines

are found in some food, and may be produced by some cooking processes from proteins or from nitrites used as food preservatives; cured meat such as bacon has been found to be carcinogenic, with links to colon cancer.

Ascorbate

, which is added to cured meat, however, reduces nitrosamine formation.


[29]


[31]

Research has shown that grilling, barbecuing and smoking meat and fish increases levels of carcinogenic

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

(PAH). In Europe, grilled meat and smoked fish generally only contribute a small proportion of dietary PAH intake since they are a minor component of diet – most intake comes from cereals, oils and fats.


[32]

However, in the US, grilled/barbecued meat is the second highest contributor of the mean daily intake of a known PAH carcinogen

benzo[a]pyrene

at 21% after ‘bread, cereal and grain’ at 29%.


[32]

Baking, grilling or broiling food, especially starchy foods, until a toasted crust is formed generates significant concentrations of

acrylamide

, a known

carcinogen

from animal studies; its potential to cause cancer in humans at normal exposures is uncertain.


[33]

Public health authorities recommend reducing the risk by avoiding overly browning starchy foods or meats when frying, baking, toasting or roasting them.


[33]

Other health issues

[


edit

]

Cooking dairy products may reduce a protective effect against colon cancer. Researchers at the

University of Toronto

suggest that ingesting uncooked or unpasteurized

dairy products

(see also

Raw milk

) may reduce the risk of

colorectal cancer

.


[34]

Mice and rats fed uncooked sucrose, casein, and beef tallow had one-third to one-fifth the incidence of

microadenomas

as the mice and rats fed the same ingredients cooked.


[35]


[36]

This claim, however, is contentious. According to the

Food and Drug Administration of the United States

, health benefits claimed by raw milk advocates do not exist. “The small quantities of antibodies in milk are not absorbed in the human intestinal tract,” says Barbara Ingham, PhD, associate professor and extension food scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “There is no scientific evidence that raw milk contains an anti-arthritis factor or that it enhances resistance to other diseases.”


[37]

Heating sugars with proteins or fats can produce

advanced glycation end products

(“glycotoxins”).


[38]

Deep fried food in restaurants may contain high level of

trans fat

, which is known to increase levels of

low-density lipoprotein

that in turn may increase risk of

heart diseases

and other conditions. However, many fast food chains have now switched to trans-fat-free alternatives for deep-frying.


[39]

Scientific aspects

[


edit

]

The application of

scientific knowledge

to cooking and

gastronomy

has become known as

molecular gastronomy

. This is a subdiscipline of

food science

. Important contributions have been made by scientists, chefs and authors such as

Herve This

(chemist),

Nicholas Kurti

(physicist),

Peter Barham

(physicist),

Harold McGee

(author),

Shirley Corriher

(biochemist, author),

Heston Blumenthal

(chef),

Ferran Adria

(chef),

Robert Wolke

(chemist, author) and

Pierre Gagnaire

(chef).

[

citation needed



]

Chemical processes central to cooking include the

Maillard reaction

– a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid, a reducing sugar and heat.


[40]

Home-cooking and commercial cooking

[


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]




A restaurant kitchen in
Munich
, Germany (Haxnbauer restaurant)

Home cooking has traditionally been a process carried out informally in a home or around a

communal fire

, and can be enjoyed by all members of the family, although in many cultures women bear primary responsibility.


[41]

Cooking is also often carried out outside of personal quarters, for example at restaurants, or schools.

Bakeries

were one of the earliest forms of cooking outside the home, and bakeries in the past often offered the cooking of pots of food provided by their customers as an additional service. In the present day, factory food preparation has become common, with many “ready-to-eat” foods being prepared and cooked in factories and home cooks using a mixture of

scratch made

, and factory made foods together to make a

meal

. The nutritional value of including more commercially prepared foods has been found to be inferior to home-made foods.


[42]

Home-cooked meals tend to be healthier with fewer calories, and less

saturated fat

,

cholesterol

and

sodium

on a per calorie basis while providing more

fiber

,

calcium

, and

iron

.


[43]

The ingredients are also directly sourced, so there is control over authenticity, taste, and nutritional value. The superior nutritional quality of home-cooking could therefore play a role in preventing

chronic disease

.


[44]

Cohort studies following the elderly over 10 years show that adults who cook their own meals have significantly lower mortality, even when controlling for confounding variables.


[45]

“Home-cooking” may be associated with

comfort food

,


[46]

and some commercially produced foods are presented through advertising or

packaging

as having been “home-cooked”, regardless of their actual origin.

[

citation needed



]

recipes for dinner, drinks alcohol recipes, recipes easy, cooking recipes, cooking tips, survival food

See also

[


edit

]

References

[


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]

This is is a syndicated post. Read the original at en.wikipedia.org


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